Causal link polarity
A positive (+) or negative (−) sign that indicates the direction of impact of the driving variable on the driven variable. Positive polarity indicates that the impacted variable moves in the same direction (increase or decrease) as the driving variable. Negative polarity indicates that the impacted variable moves in the opposite direction (increase or decrease) to the driving variable. Alternatively, positive link polarity is sometimes indicated by the letter “S” (causing to move in the same direction) and negative link polarity by the letter “O” (causing to move in the opposite direction).